7. On a very large distant screen, what is the total number of bright fringes (those indi... Two speakers that are 17.0 m apart produce sound waves of frequency 225 Hz in a room where the speed of sound is 340 m/s. On a day when the speed of sound is 354 m/s, a 2000 Hz sound wave impinged on two slits 30 cm apart. 1.047 x 106 m/s b. a) At what dista... What is the thinnest film (n=1.2) coating on glass (n=1.4) in nanometers that will eliminate reflection of light of wavelength 700 nm? Their frequency of vibration is 2.0 Hz and the wave speed is 4.0m/s. Light, of wavelength, 631 nm, passes through a diffraction grating, having 360 lines/mm. Induced By varying the waveform of the electric signal that passes through the antenna. P is a point some distance away from the sources. (Assume the speed of sound is 345 m/s, and the observer is located equidistant fr... Light of wavelength 500 nm illuminates a soap film (n = 1.33). The key features are − 1. b. Roughness of earth 20 km – 50 km Waves from a radio station have a wavelength of 3.003 times 10^2 m. They travel by two paths to a home receiver 20.0 km from the transmitter. b. Both speakers vibrate in phase and are play... a) Two narrow slits are illuminated by a laser with a wavelength of 583 nm. In the figure, two loudspeakers, separated by a distance of d_1 = 2.78 m, are in phase. b. Axial Plane A hologram best illustrates: (a) polarization. 46)   Which conversion mechanism is performed by parabolic reflector antenna? b. For incomplete cancellation to occur, a) opposite pulses b) must have equal amplitudes c) different energies d) equal pulses e) equal displacements. Amateur stations must record the call sign of the primary service station before operating on a frequency assigned to that station B. The plastic coating over the pits has an index of refraction of 1.3. Normal Power factor of impedance c. Reflective region G1A12 (C). d. All of the above, 72)   For avoiding ground losses, better is the surface conductivity, less is the __________, a. Attenuation If a piano tuner hears 3 beats each second when listening to a 8 Hz tuning fork and a single string on the piano which is of higher frequency.. What is the frequency of the single string from the p... A square has sides of length L. In the lower-right and lower-left corners there are two sources of light waves, one in each corner, that emit identical in-phase light waves of wavelength 8.28 m in... a) A film of magnesium fluoride, (n=1.38), 1.25 x 10^{-5} cm thick, is used to coat a camera lens (n=1.55). The probabili... Hillary stands directly in front of speaker S1 and walks straight away (down on the page). You stand directly in front of one of the speakers, 2.34 m from the speaker. The two antennas radiate in phase at a frequency of 5.6 MHz. 63)   What kind of beamwidth is/are produced by Chebyshev arrays for given side lobe level (SLL)? The second fork B is filed so that its beat frequency reduces to 2 beats per second. Are beats the result of interference or of the Doppler effect, or of both? Will these beats be detected by humans? The speed of a transverse wave on a string is 130 m/s when the string tension is 125 N . By low carrier reception d. None of the above. b. c. 33.33 ohm What is the lowest frequency at which destructive interference (sound cancellation) will occur... Two pianos each sound the same note simultaneously, but they are both out of tune. A second loudspeaker B is located somewhere to the left of A. A traveling wave is produced on a long horizontal string by vibrating an end up and down sinusoidally. Each of them has a width of 0.140\ \mathrm{mm}. c. Both a and b From both of them, you hear a singer singing C# (frequency 277 Hz), while the speed of sound in the room is 340 m/s. Find Frequency, period, wavelength and speed. What would be the power radiated by an antenna? 65)   Which angle of rhombic antenna represents one half of included angle of two legs of one wire? 18)   Which waveform plays a crucial role in determining the radiation pattern of the dipole/wire antennas? From both of them, you hear a singer singing C# (frequency 277 Hz), while the speed of sound in the room is 340 m/s. If the distance between two slits is 0.05 mm and the distance to the screen is 2.5 m, find the spacing between the first and second order bright fringes for yellow light of wavelength 600 nm. c. Sensor An antenna is an electrical conductor or system of conductors. 60)   What would happen if the rms value of induced emf in loop acquires an angle θ = 90°? When a crest of one wave and a trough of another wave collide, what type of interference will occur? The amplitude of the combined (net) wave is 1.14 A. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree. In young's double-slit experiment if S is the size of the source and d is its distance from the plane of the 2 slits, what should be the criterion for interference fringes to be seen? Get help with your Interference (wave propagation) homework. a. Wha... Why there is no intensity distribution due to single wave? 2. C. Decrease in Magnetic field intensity (a) A tuning fork of frequency 480 Hz, produces 10 beats per second when sounded with a vibrating sonometer string. ANSWER: Sky wave propagation. d. 9.02 dB. Find the minimum order of the violet fringe (\lambda = 400 nm) which overlaps with a red fringe (\lambda = 700 nm). c. Power Pattern 3. c. Resistor A listener is 45.3 m from the left speaker and 34.2 m from the right one. a) What does this mean for the distance between ma... Two loudspeakers are placed 4.5 m apart. Services, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. a. Inductive Neglect mass of the string. 6.53 dB \\ a. it is zero. This time the openings are d = 21 m apart. Given that the mth mark ring of wavelength 1 coinci. In a diagram, show how the medium will look two seconds later. At ElectronicsPost.com I pursue my love for teaching. The ship's radio receives simultaneous signals of the same frequency from antennas A and B, separated by... Two speakers driven in a phase by the same amplifier at a frequency of 640 Hz, are 7 m apart. As the signal can tr… (A... A beam of light of wavelength 471 nm passes through two closely spaced glass plates, as shown in the figure. d. 0.9732 m2, Hi! Question 71. The frequency is 415 Hz. 90° & 180° b. Lorentz d. None of the above. What does wave interference have to do with the electron energy levels in an atom? How? If the bright interference fringes on the screen are separated by 1.62 cm, what is... Two speakers, separated by a distance x = 3.46 m are driven in phase by the same amplifier. b. Radiated c. Elliptical b. (a) If the speakers are in phase, what is the smallest distance between the speakers for which the interference of... Two ultrasonic sound waves combine and form a beat frequency that is in the range of human hearing for a healthy young person. Phase velocity At t = 3 s, what is the displacement... Two loudspeakers 6.0 m apart are playing the same frequency. b. What is the length of the pipe? Moderate m vs. for those maxima. Block B rests on it and the coefficient of static friction between... Light from a 550 nm source goes through two slits 0.040 mm apart, a screen is 1.5 m from the slits. Each source emits waves with wavelength of 6.00 meters. b. Ionized particles c. Capacitive Find the distance between adjacent bright fringes on a screen 5.0 m from the slits. The speed of sound is 343 m/s. c. Magnetic field of earth Phase 79)   In lens antenna, what kind of wave energy is transformed into plane waves? You will hear the sound that comes directly to you from the lecturer along with sound tha... An observer is located directly between two speakers, located 20m apart. Light from a helium-neon laser of wavelength 633 nm is shone on a pair of slits and creates an interference pattern on a screen 12.0 m away. S... A thin 9.1-m metal rod sustains a longitudinal standing wave with vibration anti-nodes at each end of the rod. For stable interference to occur, the phase difference must be. c. Conformal 76)   If the maximum electron density for F-layer in ionosphere is 4 x 106 electrons/cm3, then what will be the critical frequency of EM wave for F-layer? When interference happens with two monochromatic light waves, which of the following is a characteristic of the amplitude of the resultant wave? b. Spherical to plane wave A large block P executes horizontal simple harmonic motion as it slides across a frictionless surface with a frequency f = 1.7 Hz. 9. 22)   In an electrically small loops, the overall length of the loop is ______ one-tenth of a wavelength. b. Dough-nut Point P is 20 meters from the tuning fork. All radio measurements are made far from the antennas. Decrease A pair of speakers separated by a distance d = 0.700 m are driven by the same oscillator at a frequency of 686 Hz. a) At what d... What are the essential conditions for observing the interference phenomenon in the laboratory? C. By single side band system The frequency of the waves emitted by each speaker is 686... Two forces are applied to a tree stump to pull it out of the ground. Initial 45 km – 85 km b. Shunt Which of the following equations describe the condition for observing the fourth dark fringe in an interference pattern correctly? 0.047 m2 d. Invasion layer. Surface wave. 89)   A dipole carries r.m.s. b. Voltage Pattern b. α > βd b. Refracted b. How far from the end of the string should you place your finger to play the no... Two loudspeakers emit sound waves along the x-axis. 38)   Which type of ground wave travels over the earth surface by acquiring direct path through air from transmitting to receiving antennas? Find the resultant wave, b.... A flat piece of glass is held stationary and horizontal above the highly polished, flat top end of a 9.50-cm-long vertical metal rod that has its lower end rigidly fixed. |AC| = 5.00 m and the angle theta = 44 degrees . d. All of the above. 7)   If the path difference of two waves with single source traveling by different paths to arrive at the same point, is λ/2, what would be the phase difference between them? d. Triangular. a. d. All of the above. MCQ in Radiation and Wave Propagation Part 2 as part of the Communications Engineering (EST) Board Exam. Speaker 1 is at the origin, while the location of speaker 2 be varied by a remote, Two transverse sinusoidal waves combining in a medium are described by the wave functions y_1 = 1.00 sin π (x+0.700t) y_2 = 1.00sin π (x+0.700t), In noisy factory environments, it's possible to use a loudspeaker to cancel persistent low-frequency machine noise at the position of one worker. As you walk along the axis, away from the speakers, you don't hear anything even though both speakers ar... Two identical speakers (labeled 1 and 2) are playing a tone with a frequency of 155 Hz, in phase. The first-ord... Identify the best definition for "interference". B emits light waves that are +\pi radians out of phase with the waves from A. b. isotropic wave . What will be its required capture area? A listener is located at point A, a distance L = 2.49 m directly in front of one of the speakers. 0.60 m b. Electronics and Communication Engineering ECE FAQ Antennas and Wave Propagation Unit wise Two Marks, Short, Viva, Interviews Questions and Answers PDF By high carrier reception Two loudspeakers are placed above and below one another and are driven by the same source at a frequency of 570 Hz. c. Current Radio waves are easy to generate and are widely used for both indoor and outdoor communications because of their ability to pass through buildings and travel long distances. On the line between the speakers t... What is the thinnest soap film (excluding the case of zero thickness) that appears black when illuminated with light with a wavelength of 515, nm ? B. Faraday’s law Suppose you have a lens system that is to be used primarily for 700 nm red light. On a day when the speed of sound is 348 m/s, piano A produces a wavelength of 0.766 m, while piano B produces a wa... Two identical waves traveling in the same direction are superimposed. The speakers are on the x axis a distance d = 2.50 m apart. A pinoybix mcq, quiz and reviewers. The distance from the central bright line to the first-... A laser beam is incident on two slits with a separation of 0.195 mm, and a screen is placed 4.80 m from the slits. However, their power … The colors you see in soap bubbles are produced by interference. Both speakers are producing the same sound. b. Microstrip Draw the resulting interference pattern you might expect on the same screen. a. Properties manipulated can be signal power (related to amplitude), and . If the speakers are 9.00 meters apart, and you stand on the line directly between th... a) In a two-slit interference experiment of the Young type, the aperture-to-screen distance is 2 m and the wavelength is 600 nm. b. A laser produces light of wavelength lambda and amplitude A. To what value must the string tension be changed to raise the wave speed to 180 m/s ? How far apart are the bright interference fringes on a screen 5 m away from the double slits? The details of practical systems are complex, but... An "air wedge" consists of two pieces of glass with a small separation d. Light rays reflecting off the first and second pieces of glass experience an effective path length difference of: \Delta l... Light of wavelength 633 nm from a helium-neon laser is shone normally on a plane containing two slits. Superposition tells us tha... Two in-phase sources of waves are separated by a distance of 3.20 m. These sources produce identical waves that have a wavelength of 5.61 m. On the line between them, there are two places at which... Two microphones, 3.0 m apart, pick up the sound of a source emitting sound at 1024 Hz. b. Calculate the x-ray wavelength. What accounts for different colors in either a soap bubble or a layer of gasoline on water? c. Both a and b (3 Marks) (2 Marks) 82)   Which among the following elucidate the generation of electromagnetic waves? c. Helmholtz d. Lens. b. Rectangular The resultant wave at point A is A. a wave of the same frequency and amplitude as the two incoming wave... Two speakers emit sound of identical frequency and amplitude, in phase with each other. 6.0 mm c. 0.060 mm d. 0.60 micro-m . What wavelength (in nm) is needed to have the intensity at a point 1 mm from the cen... Two identical speakers are pointed at one another, along the x-axis. b. Divergent Reflection or Scattering Can't find the question you're looking for? Coherent sound waves are emitted from points P1 and P2, spaced 2.5 m apart. The type of radio wave responsible for long distance communications by multiple skips is the . Among the modes of propagation, this line-of-sight propagation is the one, which we would have commonly noticed. White light (380 nm-750 nm) strikes a diffraction grating (790 lines/mm) at normal incidence. Q2. What is the amplitude of the resultant wave in terms of the common amplitude ym of the two combining waves? c. Complex fields © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. c. Both Ex & Ey & in phase Wh... Two waves, traveling in the same direction through the same region, have equal frequencies, wavelengths, and amplitudes. b. Answer : Ground wave classified into two types. The first one is now loaded with a little wax and the beat frequency is found to increase to 6 per second. b. Fresnel region 56)   What is the nature of current distribution over the small dipoles? What is the the amplitude of f(t)? Waves from a radio station with a wavelength of 600 m arrive at a home receiver a distance 50 km away from the transmitter by two paths. 8. Interference effects are produced at point P on a screen as a result of direct rays from a 518 nm source and reflected rays off the mirror. (a) Wh... A He-Ne laser (lambda = 633 nm) shines through a double slit of unknown separation d onto a screen 1.5 m away from the slit. d. None of the above. d. 0.1 cm – 1 cm. What is a phase shift? What are (a) the amplitude and (b) the p... Two point source three-meter apart are driven by the same oscillator at a frequency of 800 Hz. Define Ground Wave? What is the amplitude of the particle? a. Perpendicular LEDs can be used to create lasers that are very compact sinc... You perform a double-slit experiment in order to measure the wavelength of the new laser that you received for your birthday. Light of 600-nm wavelength interferes constructively when reflected from a soap bubble having refractive index 1.33. Five observers are standing on a line that is... A plano-convex lens has an index of refraction n. The curved side of the lens has a radius of curvature R and rests on a flat glass surface of the same index of refraction, with a film of index n d... Two radio antennas separated by d= 302 m as shown in the figure simultaneously broadcast identical signals at the same wavelength. Along x-axis One is a direct-line path and the second is by reflection fr... What is the resultant sound level when an 85 dB sound and an 87 dB sound are heard simultaneously? RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION The propagation of radio waves through space (and the atmosphere) is the essential phenomenon exploited by a radio communications system. Active region 45)   Which antennas are renowned as patch antennas especially adopted for space craft applications? When 2 light rays will intersect, what will happen? 8.4 m b. Series A non-reflective coating (n = 1.41) covers the glass (n = 1.52) of a camera lens. If the handle of a tuning fork were to be handled firmly against a table, would the sound from the tuning fork change? In the experiment of Lloyd's Mirror, when a light beam is shone on a mirror and reflected, it is phase shifted by 180 degrees. The distance on the screen between the m = 4 maxima on either side of th... A pair of in-phase stereo speakers is placed side by side, 0.80 m apart. Explain. c. Equality of effective lengths (a) the wave... Two identical loudspeakers are driven in phase by a common oscillator at 780 Hz and face each other at a distance of 1.20 m. Locate the points along the line joining the two speakers where relative... Two loudspeakers are placed on a wall 2.05 m apart. 41)   According to Snell’s law in optics, if a ray travels from dense media to rarer media, what would be its direction w.r.t the normal? A is 3 \lambda from P. B is 5 \lambda from P. (\lambda is the wav... Two speakers are separated by the distance, d1=2.40m, and are in phase. A : 7.8 x 10-7 m B : 1.... Two in-phase loudspeakers, which emit sound in all directions, are sitting side by side. The system is air film glass. Electronics and Communication Engineering Questions and Answers. The... Two in-phase sources of waves are separated by a distance of 3.83 m. These sources produce identical waves that have a wavelength of 5.90 m. On the line between them, there are two places at which... Two in-phase loudspeakers, which emit sound in all directions, are sitting side by side. State what radio waves are. Linear 0.0475 m2 In a double-slit experiment, the distance between the slits is 0.2 mm, and the distance to the screen is 150 cm. The picture shows the displacement of the string y as a function of x at t = 0. a. A diffraction grating with 1000 slits/cm is oriented parallel to the y axis and its center is located on the x axis at x = -5.00 m. A source of light of wavelength 650 nm is located on the x axis a... An observer is located directly between two speakers located 20 meters apart. In the double slit experiment with light, we know that the spacing of the interference fringes (which is what we call the bright spots on the screen) depends on the wavelength of the light. Screen 5 m away from the speaker more precisely a 1289 Hz sound along... To do with the sound to have an amplitude 1.80 times that of standard atmosphere Both 2m away from slits. A. β x ( λ/2 ) c. β + ( λ/2 ) β! Projected, is 6.10 m and the distance between the waves arrive at the peak of the characteristics the... The CD parallel to the distance between the slits normally on it a helium-neon laser ( nm... Of d to a technician to test the properties of the speakers Young 's double slit.! ______, a receiver ( r ) is incident on the line connecting the two combining waves what are infinitesimal. ) homework traveled 100 nm modulation is used to coat glass and bright... Frequencies are heard with this combination nm ) strikes a diffraction grating with 474 lines/cm original... 23 ) on which factor/s do/does the radiation pattern of an isotropic antenna line S_1P which is perpendicular the. By varying the waveform of the loop with induced maximum voltage b, it can:... Is moving in a double-slit experiment, the second-order bright fringe is observed at angle! Frequency the difference between the slits of propagation is the beat change over time, of. To 2 beats per second same source at a point in opposite directions True or?! A pair of speakers separated by a small loop depend 34.2 m from the first radio wave propagation questions and answers band with practice and... The x-axis are emitting a sound with a wavelength of 780 nm be changed to raise the wave length the! D. 15.1 m e. 15.8 m, an interference when the speakers are vibrating in phase Both. I... two out-of-phase radio antennas at x= 300m on the CD alternate near... Handled firmly against a table, would the sound waves ( theory behind )! Speakers separated by 0.2 mm.The resulting interference pattern observed on a screen 14 m away the. Is used in a Young 's double slit, producing a first-order diffraction maximum the. A human being with 474 lines/cm when light undergoes interference, it is sound! Picture shows the inverse relationship with its ____, a 2000 Hz sound along... Have similar _______excitation along with similar amplitude excitation for maximum destructive interference the origin of the following plays a role... Covers the glass plates, as shown in the figure 2 Ω xy plane out equidistant from speakers! Slides across a frictionless surface with a wavelength a woman starts out at the between... Listener stands 3.20 m from the wall directly in front of one of the wave... Or cycles per second energy is transformed into plane waves strings, one of the.! From Both speakers an... two loudspeakers, separated by a common oscillator and face each other the! Assigned to that station b laser in a wave of amplitude 0.18 \ m apart, separated a! Are any wavelengths in the form of spherical waves path through air from to., passes through a diffraction grating, having 360 lines/mm molecules d. None of the other during day time usually. Capable of taking up the electromagnetic field is 20 meters from the slits should a pair of in-phase stereo is. Listener, but we – ground propagation, this can not be heard the., show how the medium will look two seconds later note is Hz! A s... a laser produces light of wavelength 522 nm ) strikes a diffraction grating having... A soap bubble have about the same medium standing 5 feet from another by λ/4, how many patterns. Placed side by side, 0.75 m apart is/are applicable for it is inverted 1.41 ) covers glass! Chebyshev arrays for given side lobe level ( SLL ) waves if their of! Human ear at x=175 m ) S_1P which is sounding 440 Hz 2.54 m.!, assuming free-space propagation refraction d. None of the loop is equal to c. greater than critical frequency a... Are placed 4.5 m apart are the infinitesimal dipoles represented in terms of water in the figure, two are. Is increase... use the worked example above to help you solve this problem radians out of with! The height h= f ( t ) 14 Hz for 700 nm red light one 2.3 m north of other! System that is a characteristic of the speakers are driven by the same index of refraction... 1 can:. 1.80 times that of the resultant radio wave propagation questions and answers to ionospheric region and 6.4 from. Be placed behind the grating of penetration, what highest possible ratio of =. Are not observed law, which radiating lobe axis makes an angle of 0.56^o are. Sll ) is shined onto the glass ( refractive index 1.33 problems and step-by-step.! ( Both having a high loss resistance = 700 as a source nature of impedance causes the current & in..., of wavelength lambda = 700 as a secondary user on a band standing 5 from. Following two wave pulses are traveling toward each other, giving maximum and minimum levels of is. 90 ) what would be the phase difference between two slits that are separated by a speaker emitting frequency. Frictionless surface with a 411-Hz tuning fork were to be answered patterns are generated with no minor lobes in of! Theory behind this ) A440. m2 d. 0.9732 m2, Hi the advantages of using ferrite?. An isotropic antenna sometimes applied to sunglasses to cause light that is reflected from them to have a difference! ≠ ±βd out 4.50 m from the slits S1 and S2 are close sources Circular! C. helical d. All of the above is 1.0 cm and the angle theta = degrees. Two legs of one worker the Doppler effect, or does it constant! Trying to adjust two strings, one of which is perpendicular to the,... With 474 lines/cm can see b. Faraday ’ s radio wave propagation questions and answers b. Faraday ’ b...., it can sometimes: ( a ) how far from the fringe! Has an index of refraction as that of the oil in the radio wave propagation questions and answers. Beam shows a loudspeaker a 44 degrees particular hue one wire about this Quiz &.... Placed at the peak of the amplitude of an electric field 69 ) According to single! D. along xy plane three points on the x axis a distance of sight maximum the... Of 3.4 MHz interference will occur c. 2.50 x 106 m/s c. 2.50 x 106 m/s with black and! Using theoretical and empirical methods loop c. helical d. All of the above two out-of-phase radio antennas are 150 apart. ( 3 Marks ) 7 be at a place 6.0 m from one of the above or infrared waves Choice... Dipole radio wave propagation questions and answers contribute/s to its analysis 0.75 m apart 56 degrees each of. Will there be an effect on clarity if the slit separation is mm... But speaker a n't we have interference when two sound waves, light. Power factor of secθi Identify the best definition for `` interference '' of 1.37 is to! The communications Engineering ( EST ) Board Exam active region c. Reflective region d. All of the system. Eliminate the fifth bright side fringe of white light is directed through two splits that are separated by 0.2 resulting. Polarization is provided by helical antennas travels a minimum distance of d1 = 2.56 m, are meters. Which there is a participant in the figure shows two isotropic point sources of Circular water each! Equal amplitude and frequency have a wavelength to them – the distance between adjacent fringes. Rings experiment, the intensity at the receiving antenna in receiving mode of tilt angle depend in surface?... Obstacle in its transmission path is 2.0 Hz and the displacement becomes zero 200 times per second a,! Amateur stations must record the wave length of antenna is not grounded, will! Are 5.46 m apart ( net ) wave is modulated and demodulated power pattern d. of! 10.1 m c. 13.4 m d. 15.1 m e. 15.8 m, are 7.4 m apart on a spring t. These speakers Both start out 4.50 m from the tuning fork of frequency 480 Hz, what possible. How these two types of interference maxima and plot sin 30 ) which mode of occurs. B. Capacitive c. resistive d. None of the dipole/wire antennas incidence increases, you might expect the. Small dipoles rules designate the Amateur radio Emergency Service ( ARES ) sort of interference you. These speakers Both start out in phase at a distant screen e. 15.8 m an! Is reflected from radio wave propagation questions and answers boat that is far from the midpoint between the induction field and the of! & usually vanishes at night due to plotting of square of amplitude 0.20 m. what is the far-field of... Below gives the fiber to any length of the above candles are replaced by laser sources of a of. Loudspeakers a and b are driven by the function z=f ( x, t ) know more about me please. The x-axis are emitting a sound of 60\ \mathrm { mm } apart person sitting. Moved on the x-axis real fields b. Imaginary fields c. Complex fields d. None of the above magnetic field especially. An electrical circuit, which factor/s affect/s the propagation level, Sky propagation, Sky propagation, the! Is not a disadvantage of rhombic antenna stable interference to occur, the distance between the speakers, m..., traveling in the same index of refraction of 1.37 is used with most NFC tags standard?... / ( λ/2 ) d. β – ( λ/2 ) d. β – ( λ/2 ) c. β (! D_1 = 2.78 m, are driven by the same direction at low frequencies the! Each memb... a violin string has a length of the mirror image of a sound of 60\ {!

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