By chance the British drew back and Hipper escaped the two forces set to trap him. The bombardments caused hundreds of civilian casualties and resulted in public outrage in Britain against the German Navy for the raid and the Royal Navy for failing to prevent it. Hartlepool was a more significant target than the resort town of Scarborough. Five members of the Bennett family were killed during the raid. Jellicoe with the Grand Fleet continued the search on 17 December, to engage the High Seas Fleet but it was safely in harbour. Blame eventually settled on the confused signals, which had been drafted by Lieutenant Commander Ralph Seymour, who remained flag officer to Beatty, making similar costly mistakes at the Battle of Dogger Bank and at the Battle of Jutland. Around 1,150 shells were fired at the town. On 2nd May 1916, L20 began its second bombing raid on Britain with the intention of attacking factories and railways in Middlesborough, Stockton-on-Tees and Hartlepool, and targeting enemy warships near Edinburgh. [17] Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz commented "Ingenohl had the fate of Germany in his hand". The German ships gave chase but could not keep up and shortly returned to their fleet. ApproximateApprox overall page size including page number where appropriate for Mounting or Mat Board purposes - 22.5cm x 26.8cm. [18], At 06:50, Shark and the destroyers sighted the cruiser SMS Roon with its destroyer escort. On 16 December, 1914, the German Navy bombarded the town of Hartlepool, in north-east England, killing 130 people and injuring hundreds more. Scarborough Castle, the prominent Grand Hotel, three churches and various other properties were hit. Further damage to the ruined Whitby Abbey. ", Battles: Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby, 1914 FirstWorldWar.net, Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Raid_on_Scarborough,_Hartlepool_and_Whitby&oldid=998881878, Naval battles of World War I involving the United Kingdom, Naval battles of World War I involving Germany, Germany–United Kingdom military relations, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 86 civilians killed and 424 wounded; 7 soldiers killed and 14 wounded, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 13:11. Hartlepool was the first place on mainland Britain to be bombed by the Germans. [2] Hipper commanded the battlecruisers SMS Seydlitz, Von der Tann, Moltke and Derfflinger, the armoured cruiser SMS Blücher, the light cruisers SMS Strassburg, Graudenz, Kolberg and Stralsund and 18 destroyers. Jellicoe protested that although such a force should be sufficient to deal with Hipper, it would not be able to match the High Seas Fleet. Jellicoe chose the point for this fleet to assemble, 25 mi (22 nmi) south-east of the Dogger Bank. [27], The High Seas Fleet had failed to engage the inferior British squadrons at Dogger Bank and the British nearly led a chase into the German fleet even after it had turned away. One fell in Lumley Square, killing twelve people, including all the members of one family. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Destroyers HMS Doon, Test, Waveney and HMS Moy were on patrol when Doon saw three large vessels approaching at 07:45, which opened fire shortly after. [9], The shore batteries remained confused about the approaching ships until shells began to fall. [23] Belatedly, the Admiralty intercepted signals from the High Seas Fleet at Heligoland as it returned to port and now warned the British ships that the German fleet was coming out. [32][33] Eight German sailors were killed and 12 wounded.[34]. At 07:40 Jones, attempting to close on Roon to fire torpedoes, discovered that she was accompanied by two other cruisers and was obliged to withdraw at full speed. [24] Keyes's submarines had been despatched to find returning German ships and also failed, although one torpedo was fired at SMS Posen by HMS E11, which missed. Kolberg remained, as she had 100 mines to lay. Kolberg, damaged in the raid and lagging behind the others, saw the smoke from his ships but was not seen; Hipper escaped. The only weapons the destroyers carried capable of damaging large vessels were torpedoes; as the ships were out of torpedo range the destroyers turned away except for Doon, which closed to 5,000 yd (2.8 mi; 4.6 km), fired one torpedo which missed and also turned away. The German High Seas Fleet had been seeking opportunities to isolate small sections of the Grand Fleet of the Royal Navy to cut off, trap and destroy. The engagement was broken off after a couple of hours in the dark but at 06:03 the following morning one of the four destroyers still able to fight, HMS Shark, again came in contact with five enemy destroyers and the British destroyers attacked. The captain reported little onshore defence, no mines within 12 miles (10 nmi) of the shore and a steady stream of shipping. The Bombardment of the Hartlepools shows a … The submarine HMS C9 followed Patrol to sea but had to dive when shells started falling around it and at 08:50, the German ships departed. [22], Beatty received the news that Warrender had sighted the ships and assumed that the battlecruisers would be following on behind the lighter vessels. HMS Hardy came under heavy fire from the cruiser SMS Hamburg, suffering severe damage and catching fire but managed to fire a torpedo. The weather was cloudy, and the airship was travelling at a height of about two miles. The Zeppelin then went away. At 08:15, Kolberg began to lay mines off Flamborough Head in a line extending 10 mi (8.7 nmi) out to sea. Inhabitants gazing at their wrecked dwellings . Description PLAQUE SET INTO A CARVED STONE ON LOW WALL Inscription THIS TABLET MARKS THE PLACE/ WHERE THE FIRST SHELL FROM THE/ LEADING GERMAN BATTLE CRUISER/ STRUCK AT 8:10 AM ON THE/ 16TH OF DECEMBER 1914/ AND ALSO RECORDS THE PLACE … The Admiralty ordered Keyes to take his two destroyers and attempt to torpedo Hipper as he returned home around 02:00; Keyes had considered this and wanted to try but the message was delayed and failed to reach him until too late. The captain reported his sightings at 07:25, the signal being received by Warrender and also by New Zealand in Beatty's squadron but the information was not passed on to Beatty. The weather had started clear with good visibility, deteriorated again. Hartlepool became the first place on mainland Britain to be bombed by the Germans. Civilians crowded into the railway station and the roads leading out of the town. Hipper initially attempted to catch up with his cruisers and come to their aid but once they reported the presence of British battleships to the south and that they had slipped past, he turned north to avoid them. The Gunners of the RGA engaged the German Warships, and it was the only time coastal artillery in the UK were involved in enemy action. Warrender changed course towards the position given by Shark, expecting Beatty to do the same. Tyrwhitt was ordered to join Warrender with his destroyer flotilla but bad weather prevented this. Visibility was now poor through rain and not all the British battleships had seen the enemy. At approximately 8.10 on the morning of 16 December 1914 the First High Seas Fleet Scouting Group, commanded by Admiral Franz von Hipper, unleashed a bombardment of the North Sea English seaports of Hartlepool, West Hartlepool, Whitby and Scarborough. This risked giving away the presence of the ships and the destroyer was ordered to be silent. Warrender and Beatty kept apart to avoid shallow water over the Dogger Bank and to cut off different routes which Hipper might take to avoid minefields laid off the Yorkshire coast. The deteriorating weather was also causing problems. Hartlepool was used as a … [14], Ingenohl had already exceeded his standing orders from the Kaiser by involving the main German fleet in the operation, without informing the Kaiser. Churchill later defended the situation, arguing that the British ships were faster and could have turned about and run. The accuracy of the third gun was sufficient to oblige Blücher to move behind the lighthouse to prevent further hits. Hartlepool Council’s museums curator Mark Simmons bought a box full of broken cameras and lenses for just £20 at Tynemouth Market in 2018. Hipper also noted radio traffic from British ships which caused concern that the British might be aware something was up. The death of Private Theophilus Jones of the Durham Light Infantry, age 29, was the first death of a British soldier from enemy action on British soil for 200 years. The bombardments caused hundreds of civilian casualties and resulted in public outrage in Britain against the German Navy for the raid and the Royal Navy for failing to prevent it. Commodore Roger Keyes was ordered to send eight submarines and his two command destroyers, HMS Lurcher and Firedrake, to take station off the island of Terschelling, to catch the German ships should they turn west into the English Channel. Casualties included the first serviceman to be j killed on British soil in WW1 and two Gunners from the Durham RGA. He attributed this to possible spying by trawlers which were encountered during the day. ‘Completely unfiltered’: How Arlo Parks found her voice, The race to create the world's next super-app, Africa's top shots: Rainy days and racetracks. 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